### 5.6 Asymptotic Analysis of Parallel Programs

At this point, we have accumulated an arsenal of powerful tools for quantifying the performance and scalability of an algorithm. Let us illustrate the use of these tools for evaluating a set of parallel programs for solving a given problem. Often, we ignore constants and concern ourselves with the asymptotic behavior of quantities. In many cases, this can yield a clearer picture of relative merits and demerits of various parallel programs.

##### Table 5.2. Comparison of four different algorithms for sorting a given list of numbers. The table shows number of processing elements, parallel runtime, speedup, efficiency and the pTP product.

Algorithm

A1

A2

A3

A4

p

n2

log n

n

TP

1

n

S

n log n

log n

E

1

1

pTP

n2

n log n

n1.5

n log n

Consider the problem of sorting a list of n numbers. The fastest serial programs for this problem run in time O (n log n). Let us look at four different parallel algorithms A1, A2, A3, and A4, for sorting a given list. The parallel runtime of the four algorithms along with the number of processing elements they can use is given in Table 5.2. The objective of this exercise is to determine which of these four algorithms is the best. Perhaps the simplest metric is one of speed; the algorithm with the lowest TP is the best. By this metric, algorithm A1 is the best, followed by A3, A4, and A2. This is also reflected in the fact that the speedups of the set of algorithms are also in this order.

However, in practical situations, we will rarely have n2 processing elements as are required by algorithm A1. Furthermore, resource utilization is an important aspect of practical program design. So let us look at how efficient each of these algorithms are. This metric of evaluating the algorithm presents a starkly different image. Algorithms A2 and A4 are the best, followed by A3 and A1. The last row of Table 5.2 presents the cost of the four algorithms. From this row, it is evident that the costs of algorithms A1 and A3 are higher than the serial runtime of n log n and therefore neither of these algorithms is cost optimal. However, algorithms A2 and A4 are cost optimal.

This set of algorithms illustrate that it is important to first understand the objectives of parallel algorithm analysis and to use appropriate metrics. This is because use of different metrics may often result in contradictory outcomes.